1. Visual Dyslexia (Word Confusion)

Signs and symptoms

  • Guessing words when reading due to non recognition, even making mistakes with short words the child may really know.
  • Poor spelling – except when taking spelling tests. The effort of composing or reading the words and sentences and spelling correctly can be done but takes considerably longer than other children. Often to keep pace with a class or to complete homework, it is the spelling and sentence structure that ends up being sacrificed to keep to time.


Trying to remember words ‘by rote’ as opposed to breaking them up and decoding by phonics. As words become more complex, the more difficult it is to use memory alone to recall and write the words. This takes up a lot of effort and concentration during the work task.


1-2-1 phonic instruction with an experienced teacher or tutor with a training programme such as Toe by Toe, a multisensory and highly structured reading manual for parents and teachers for children who suffer from Specific learning difficulties such as Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, ADHD and also associated conditions like Visual Stress. This regular training encourages children to transfer phonic decoding to complex words and normal text, thereby improving reading rates.

Next: Eye Tracking Problems (Binocular Instability)